Traditionally, chronic low back pain is thought to have a primarily nociceptive origin.  However, many patients with chronic low back pain suffer from neuropathic pain or mixed pain.  Steve Hwang, Aisling Ryan and Chris Evans join our former colleague Bruce Crawford and the study sponsor to investigate chronic low back pain in the US and Japan.  The results were presented at ISPOR Vienna, Austria (29 October – 2 November 2016).